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Technology changed the old-fashioned woods and the lumberjack's way of life. About 1870, the process of making paper from wood pulp was brought to the United States. The Adirondack forests became even more valuable because poplar, balsam, spruce, and other trees of all sizes could be used for pulp. Twentieth century inventions like chainsaws, steam driven cranes, and trucks made cutting trees and moving logs out of the forest much easier. Linn tractors for pulling log sleds replaced as many as ten teams of horses. With modern improvements, lumberjacks were no longer bound to camp and shanty life. Many moved permanently to towns such as Tupper Lake or Old Forge, New York, to live with families and commute to work in the woods. Their tools and the work they did - crosscut saws, skidding with horses, and river driving - steadily faded into memory.
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